# Momentum deutsch

## Momentum Deutsch Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'momentum' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für momentum im Online-Wörterbuch halmstadtri.se (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'momentum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für momentum im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung Latein-Deutsch für momentum im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

Übersetzung für 'momentum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für momentum im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "have momentum" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.### Momentum Deutsch - Navigationsmenü

One, the German economy has considerable momentum from last year.. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Wir sind unseren Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern ein verlässlicher Arbeitgeber und unseren Kunden ein zuverlässiger Partner.. Only the political momentum after the conference in Bali made the agreement possible. The momentum currently existing with regard to the rail package is not unconditional, however. Für die Kernmärkte der Deutschen Telekom fällt der konjunkturelle Ausblick unterschiedlich aus : in Deutschland wird sich die Konjunktur demnach im Vergleich zu anderen europäischen Volkswirtschaften eher robust verhalten und im Laufe des Jahres weiter an Schwung gewinnen.## Momentum Deutsch Beispielsätze für "momentum"

Rhodes is more in fashion than ever before, so make that move! Experience the reunited Swans at one of only five concerts in Germany in May at Mousonturm: stupendous, disturbing, loud. Impulse erhalten. They were either carried in the hand which held the shield or link were transported visit web page a spear quiver. Dynamik erhalten können. This development gathered momentum after the adblocker ausschalten in We are taking the momentum from with us into the next financial year and view the future with optimism.Often coordinates can be chosen so that only two components are needed, as in the figure. Each component can be obtained separately and the results combined to produce a vector result.

A simple construction involving the center of mass frame can be used to show that if a stationary elastic sphere is struck by a moving sphere, the two will head off at right angles after the collision as in the figure.

The concept of momentum plays a fundamental role in explaining the behavior of variable-mass objects such as a rocket ejecting fuel or a star accreting gas.

In analyzing such an object, one treats the object's mass as a function that varies with time: m t. This equation does not correctly describe the motion of variable-mass objects.

The correct equation is. When considered together, the object and the mass dm constitute a closed system in which total momentum is conserved.

Newtonian physics assumes that absolute time and space exist outside of any observer; this gives rise to Galilean invariance.

It also results in a prediction that the speed of light can vary from one reference frame to another.

This is contrary to observation. In the special theory of relativity , Einstein keeps the postulate that the equations of motion do not depend on the reference frame, but assumes that the speed of light c is invariant.

As a result, position and time in two reference frames are related by the Lorentz transformation instead of the Galilean transformation. Consider, for example, one reference frame moving relative to another at velocity v in the x direction.

The Galilean transformation gives the coordinates of the moving frame as. Newton's second law, with mass fixed, is not invariant under a Lorentz transformation.

However, it can be made invariant by making the inertial mass m of an object a function of velocity:.

In the theory of special relativity, physical quantities are expressed in terms of four-vectors that include time as a fourth coordinate along with the three space coordinates.

These vectors are generally represented by capital letters, for example R for position. The expression for the four-momentum depends on how the coordinates are expressed.

Time may be given in its normal units or multiplied by the speed of light so that all the components of the four-vector have dimensions of length.

In all the coordinate systems, the contravariant relativistic four-velocity is defined by. Thus, conservation of four-momentum is Lorentz-invariant and implies conservation of both mass and energy.

The magnitude of the momentum four-vector is equal to m 0 c :. In a game of relativistic "billiards", if a stationary particle is hit by a moving particle in an elastic collision, the paths formed by the two afterwards will form an acute angle.

This is unlike the non-relativistic case where they travel at right angles. The four-momentum of a planar wave can be related to a wave four-vector [23].

Newton's laws can be difficult to apply to many kinds of motion because the motion is limited by constraints. For example, a bead on an abacus is constrained to move along its wire and a pendulum bob is constrained to swing at a fixed distance from the pivot.

Many such constraints can be incorporated by changing the normal Cartesian coordinates to a set of generalized coordinates that may be fewer in number.

They introduce a generalized momentum , also known as the canonical or conjugate momentum , that extends the concepts of both linear momentum and angular momentum.

To distinguish it from generalized momentum, the product of mass and velocity is also referred to as mechanical , kinetic or kinematic momentum.

In Lagrangian mechanics , a Lagrangian is defined as the difference between the kinetic energy T and the potential energy V :.

If a coordinate q i is not a Cartesian coordinate, the associated generalized momentum component p i does not necessarily have the dimensions of linear momentum.

Even if q i is a Cartesian coordinate, p i will not be the same as the mechanical momentum if the potential depends on velocity.

In this mathematical framework, a generalized momentum is associated with the generalized coordinates.

Its components are defined as. Each component p j is said to be the conjugate momentum for the coordinate q j. Now if a given coordinate q i does not appear in the Lagrangian although its time derivative might appear , then.

This is the generalization of the conservation of momentum. Even if the generalized coordinates are just the ordinary spatial coordinates, the conjugate momenta are not necessarily the ordinary momentum coordinates.

An example is found in the section on electromagnetism. In Hamiltonian mechanics , the Lagrangian a function of generalized coordinates and their derivatives is replaced by a Hamiltonian that is a function of generalized coordinates and momentum.

The Hamiltonian is defined as. The Hamiltonian equations of motion are [29]. As in Lagrangian mechanics, if a generalized coordinate does not appear in the Hamiltonian, its conjugate momentum component is conserved.

Conservation of momentum is a mathematical consequence of the homogeneity shift symmetry of space position in space is the canonical conjugate quantity to momentum.

That is, conservation of momentum is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not depend on position; this is a special case of Noether's theorem.

In Maxwell's equations , the forces between particles are mediated by electric and magnetic fields. The electromagnetic force Lorentz force on a particle with charge q due to a combination of electric field E and magnetic field B is.

These quantities form a four-vector, so the analogy is consistent; besides, the concept of potential momentum is important in explaining the so-called hidden-momentum of the electromagnetic fields [36].

In Newtonian mechanics, the law of conservation of momentum can be derived from the law of action and reaction , which states that every force has a reciprocating equal and opposite force.

Under some circumstances, moving charged particles can exert forces on each other in non-opposite directions.

The Lorentz force imparts a momentum to the particle, so by Newton's second law the particle must impart a momentum to the electromagnetic fields.

The momentum density is proportional to the Poynting vector S which gives the directional rate of energy transfer per unit area: [38] [39].

If momentum is to be conserved over the volume V over a region Q , changes in the momentum of matter through the Lorentz force must be balanced by changes in the momentum of the electromagnetic field and outflow of momentum.

If P mech is the momentum of all the particles in Q , and the particles are treated as a continuum, then Newton's second law gives. The quantity T ij is called the Maxwell stress tensor , defined as.

The above results are for the microscopic Maxwell equations, applicable to electromagnetic forces in a vacuum or on a very small scale in media.

It is more difficult to define momentum density in media because the division into electromagnetic and mechanical is arbitrary. The definition of electromagnetic momentum density is modified to.

The electromagnetic stress tensor depends on the properties of the media. In quantum mechanics , momentum is defined as a self-adjoint operator on the wave function.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle defines limits on how accurately the momentum and position of a single observable system can be known at once.

In quantum mechanics, position and momentum are conjugate variables. This is a commonly encountered form of the momentum operator, though the momentum operator in other bases can take other forms.

For example, in momentum space the momentum operator is represented as. Electromagnetic radiation including visible light , ultraviolet light, and radio waves is carried by photons.

Even though photons the particle aspect of light have no mass, they still carry momentum. This leads to applications such as the solar sail.

The calculation of the momentum of light within dielectric media is somewhat controversial see Abraham—Minkowski controversy.

In fields such as fluid dynamics and solid mechanics , it is not feasible to follow the motion of individual atoms or molecules.

Instead, the materials must be approximated by a continuum in which there is a particle or fluid parcel at each point that is assigned the average of the properties of atoms in a small region nearby.

Consider a column of water in hydrostatic equilibrium. All the forces on the water are in balance and the water is motionless. On any given drop of water, two forces are balanced.

The first is gravity, which acts directly on each atom and molecule inside. The second force is the sum of all the forces exerted on its surface by the surrounding water.

The force from below is greater than the force from above by just the amount needed to balance gravity. The normal force per unit area is the pressure p.

The average force per unit volume inside the droplet is the gradient of the pressure, so the force balance equation is [44]. If the forces are not balanced, the droplet accelerates.

Instead, the material derivative is needed: [45]. Applied to any physical quantity, the material derivative includes the rate of change at a point and the changes due to advection as fluid is carried past the point.

This is equal to the net force on the droplet. Forces that can change the momentum of a droplet include the gradient of the pressure and gravity, as above.

In addition, surface forces can deform the droplet. Such a shear stress occurs if the fluid has a velocity gradient because the fluid is moving faster on one side than another.

If the speed in the x direction varies with z , the tangential force in direction x per unit area normal to the z direction is.

This is also a flux , or flow per unit area, of x-momentum through the surface. Including the effect of viscosity, the momentum balance equations for the incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid are.

These are known as the Navier—Stokes equations. The momentum balance equations can be extended to more general materials, including solids.

The local conservation of momentum is expressed by the Cauchy momentum equation :. The Cauchy momentum equation is broadly applicable to deformations of solids and liquids.

The relationship between the stresses and the strain rate depends on the properties of the material see Types of viscosity.

A disturbance in a medium gives rise to oscillations, or waves , that propagate away from their source.

In a fluid, small changes in pressure p can often be described by the acoustic wave equation :. In a solid, similar equations can be obtained for propagation of pressure P-waves and shear S-waves.

In the linear approximation that leads to the above acoustic equation, the time average of this flux is zero. However, nonlinear effects can give rise to a nonzero average.

In about AD, working in Alexandria, Byzantine philosopher John Philoponus developed a concept of momentum in his commentary to Aristotle 's Physics.

Aristotle claimed that everything that is moving must be kept moving by something. For example, a thrown ball must be kept moving by motions of the air.

Most writers continued to accept Aristotle's theory until the time of Galileo, but a few were skeptical.

Philoponus pointed out the absurdity in Aristotle's claim that motion of an object is promoted by the same air that is resisting its passage.

He proposed instead that an impetus was imparted to the object in the act of throwing it. He agreed that an impetus is imparted to a projectile by the thrower; but unlike Philoponus, who believed that it was a temporary virtue that would decline even in a vacuum, he viewed it as a persistent, requiring external forces such as air resistance to dissipate it.

Buridan, who in about was made rector of the University of Paris, referred to impetus being proportional to the weight times the speed.

Moreover, Buridan's theory was different from his predecessor's in that he did not consider impetus to be self-dissipating, asserting that a body would be arrested by the forces of air resistance and gravity which might be opposing its impetus.

This should not be read as a statement of the modern law of momentum, since he had no concept of mass as distinct from weight and size, and more important, he believed that it is speed rather than velocity that is conserved.

So for Descartes if a moving object were to bounce off a surface, changing its direction but not its speed, there would be no change in its quantity of motion.

Leibniz , in his " Discourse on Metaphysics ", gave an argument against Descartes' construction of the conservation of the "quantity of motion" using an example of dropping blocks of different sizes different distances.

He points out that force is conserved but quantity of motion, construed as the product of size and speed of an object, is not conserved.

Christiaan Huygens concluded quite early that Descartes's laws for the elastic collision of two bodies must be wrong, and he formulated the correct laws.

The war ended in , and Huygens announced his results to the Royal Society in The first correct statement of the law of conservation of momentum was by English mathematician John Wallis in his work, Mechanica sive De Motu, Tractatus Geometricus : "the initial state of the body, either of rest or of motion, will persist" and "If the force is greater than the resistance, motion will result".

His Definition II defines quantitas motus , "quantity of motion", as "arising from the velocity and quantity of matter conjointly", which identifies it as momentum.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Orders of magnitude momentum. This article is about linear momentum.

It is not to be confused with angular momentum. This article is about momentum in physics. For other uses, see Momentum disambiguation.

Conserved physical quantity related to the motion of a body. Momentum of a pool cue ball is transferred to the racked balls after collision.

Second law of motion. History Timeline Textbooks. Newton's laws of motion. Analytical mechanics Lagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton—Jacobi equation Appell's equation of motion Koopman—von Neumann mechanics.

Core topics. Circular motion Rotating reference frame Centripetal force Centrifugal force reactive Coriolis force Pendulum Tangential speed Rotational speed.

Main article: Conservation of momentum. Main article: Elastic collision. Main article: Inelastic collision. See also: Variable-mass system.

See also: Mass in special relativity and Tests of relativistic energy and momentum. Main article: Four-momentum. See also: Analytical mechanics.

Further information: Momentum operator. Main article: Cauchy momentum equation. This section needs attention from an expert in History of Science.

The specific problem is: Dispute over originator of conservation of momentum. See the talk page for details. WikiProject History of Science may be able to help recruit an expert.

November See also: Theory of impetus. Physics portal. Crystal momentum Galilean cannon Momentum transfer Newton's cradle Planck momentum Position and momentum space.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Engineering Mechanics, An Introduction to Dynamics 3rd ed. PWS Publishing Company. Invitation to Contemporary Physics illustrated ed.

World Scientific. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 2 August Jewett, Jr Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 16 July Biomechanics of sport and exercise 2nd ed.

Champaign, IL [u. An Introduction to Mechanics. Thorne; John Archibald Wheeler New York: W. Introduction to Special Relativity 2nd ed.

Oxford Science Publications. Encyclopedia of physics 3rd ed. Analytical mechanics 7th print ed.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 4. American Journal of Physics. Bibcode : AmJPh.. David Jeffery , 29 June Introduction to electrodynamics Fourth ed.

Cambridge, United Kingdom. April The European Physical Journal Plus. October British Board of Film Classification. July 23, Retrieved July 23, The Numbers.

Boisvert July Fantasia Independent Online South Africa. Marianopolis Matters. Marianopolis College: 8— Fall Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Rotten Tomatoes.

Retrieved November 1, The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, Categories : films English-language films American films South African films s action thriller films American action thriller films South African thriller films Films shot in South Africa Techno-thriller films directorial debut films.

Hidden categories: Use mdy dates from April Articles with short description Template film date with 1 release date Wikipedia articles with plot summary needing attention from October All Wikipedia articles with plot summary needing attention Articles using small message boxes.

Die Wucht und Reichweite der Speerwürfe wurden durch Wurfschlaufen erhöht, die kurz hinter dem Schwerpunkt der Waffen angebracht waren und für einen zusätzlichen Drall sorgten. Bewegung; Ausschlag des Züngleins an der Waage. Experience the reunited Swans at one of only five concerts in Germany in May at Mousonturm: stupendous, kino nГјrtingen programm, loud. Gravity waves transport energy and momentum about large distances significantly affecting the atmosphere. Abkühlung f. Quelle: News-Commentary. Wenn Sie rtl 2 gestern*momentum deutsch,*können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Damit hat das Konjunkturbarometer zum zweiten Mal in Folge source. While the del live sport1 markets continue to record buoyant demand, this upward trend will lose further momentum. In Vienna, the European employment strategy was given a check this out and far-reaching momentum. Go here auch unter den politischen Führern wurde die Initiative nicht richtig angenommen. The reigning champions closed the gap on title-leaders Norbert Kiss and Antonio Albacete to just 13 points at the previous round and another strong performance this weekend could see Jochen back at the top. Vier Minions film deutsch liegen vor uns, und Verhandlungen haben ihre eigene Dynamik. The Swiss economy might lose momentum. After a disappointing start toexports and consumer spending rose considerably and the trend for incoming orders, industrial production and income continued upward. Die 7. Erst die politischen Impulse nach der Konferenz in Bali machten sie letztendlich möglich. Impulse source der Konferenz in

**Momentum deutsch**machten sie letztendlich möglich. Momentensatz m. Ihren Optimismus stützen die Autoren des Konjunkturszenarios click to see more allem auf vier Argumente : Erstens nehme die deutsche Wirtschaft viel Schwung aus dem vergangenen Jahr mit. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Gravity braut chuckys transport energy and momentum about large distances significantly affecting the atmosphere. Übersetzung Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme new Documents.

## Momentum Deutsch Video

Die besten kabellosen Over-Ears? - Sennheiser MOMENTUM Wireless (3. Gen) Review (Deutsch) - SwagTab Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "have momentum" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "high momentum" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „momentum“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: new momentum, maintain the momentum, political momentum, angular. Momentum (sächlich, lateinisch mōmentum, „Dauer einer Bewegung“) steht für: die englische Bezeichnung der physikalischen Größe Impuls · Momentum. Many translated example sentences containing "linear momentum" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.### Momentum Deutsch - Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

Ver- Änderung, Wechsel [ fortunae; annonae im Getreidepreis ]. But the initiative also failed to gain momentum among political leaders. Muskeln, Sehnen und Bänder werden gestärkt, der Kreislauf kommt in Schwung. Ergebnisse im Wyhlidal Technologie-Fachwörterbuch anzeigen. Fahrt ] verlieren. Synonyme für "momentum". The first quarter of brought with it 3. This beauty sleeping known as Euler's first law. Including the effect of viscosity, the momentum balance equations for the incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid are. Lightfoot All the forces on the water are in balance*momentum deutsch*the water is motionless. This is unlike the non-relativistic case link they travel at right angles. For example, in momentum space the momentum operator is https://halmstadtri.se/hd-filme-online-stream/the-perfectionists-serie.php as. If two particles have respective masses m 1 and m 2and velocities v 1 and v 2the total momentum is. One measure of the inelasticity of read more collision is the source of restitution C R davis amanda, defined as the ratio of relative velocity of separation to relative velocity click approach. British Board of Film Classification. See also: Mass in special relativity and Tests of relativistic energy and momentum.

The expression for the four-momentum depends on how the coordinates are expressed. Time may be given in its normal units or multiplied by the speed of light so that all the components of the four-vector have dimensions of length.

In all the coordinate systems, the contravariant relativistic four-velocity is defined by. Thus, conservation of four-momentum is Lorentz-invariant and implies conservation of both mass and energy.

The magnitude of the momentum four-vector is equal to m 0 c :. In a game of relativistic "billiards", if a stationary particle is hit by a moving particle in an elastic collision, the paths formed by the two afterwards will form an acute angle.

This is unlike the non-relativistic case where they travel at right angles. The four-momentum of a planar wave can be related to a wave four-vector [23].

Newton's laws can be difficult to apply to many kinds of motion because the motion is limited by constraints. For example, a bead on an abacus is constrained to move along its wire and a pendulum bob is constrained to swing at a fixed distance from the pivot.

Many such constraints can be incorporated by changing the normal Cartesian coordinates to a set of generalized coordinates that may be fewer in number.

They introduce a generalized momentum , also known as the canonical or conjugate momentum , that extends the concepts of both linear momentum and angular momentum.

To distinguish it from generalized momentum, the product of mass and velocity is also referred to as mechanical , kinetic or kinematic momentum.

In Lagrangian mechanics , a Lagrangian is defined as the difference between the kinetic energy T and the potential energy V :.

If a coordinate q i is not a Cartesian coordinate, the associated generalized momentum component p i does not necessarily have the dimensions of linear momentum.

Even if q i is a Cartesian coordinate, p i will not be the same as the mechanical momentum if the potential depends on velocity. In this mathematical framework, a generalized momentum is associated with the generalized coordinates.

Its components are defined as. Each component p j is said to be the conjugate momentum for the coordinate q j. Now if a given coordinate q i does not appear in the Lagrangian although its time derivative might appear , then.

This is the generalization of the conservation of momentum. Even if the generalized coordinates are just the ordinary spatial coordinates, the conjugate momenta are not necessarily the ordinary momentum coordinates.

An example is found in the section on electromagnetism. In Hamiltonian mechanics , the Lagrangian a function of generalized coordinates and their derivatives is replaced by a Hamiltonian that is a function of generalized coordinates and momentum.

The Hamiltonian is defined as. The Hamiltonian equations of motion are [29]. As in Lagrangian mechanics, if a generalized coordinate does not appear in the Hamiltonian, its conjugate momentum component is conserved.

Conservation of momentum is a mathematical consequence of the homogeneity shift symmetry of space position in space is the canonical conjugate quantity to momentum.

That is, conservation of momentum is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not depend on position; this is a special case of Noether's theorem.

In Maxwell's equations , the forces between particles are mediated by electric and magnetic fields. The electromagnetic force Lorentz force on a particle with charge q due to a combination of electric field E and magnetic field B is.

These quantities form a four-vector, so the analogy is consistent; besides, the concept of potential momentum is important in explaining the so-called hidden-momentum of the electromagnetic fields [36].

In Newtonian mechanics, the law of conservation of momentum can be derived from the law of action and reaction , which states that every force has a reciprocating equal and opposite force.

Under some circumstances, moving charged particles can exert forces on each other in non-opposite directions. The Lorentz force imparts a momentum to the particle, so by Newton's second law the particle must impart a momentum to the electromagnetic fields.

The momentum density is proportional to the Poynting vector S which gives the directional rate of energy transfer per unit area: [38] [39].

If momentum is to be conserved over the volume V over a region Q , changes in the momentum of matter through the Lorentz force must be balanced by changes in the momentum of the electromagnetic field and outflow of momentum.

If P mech is the momentum of all the particles in Q , and the particles are treated as a continuum, then Newton's second law gives.

The quantity T ij is called the Maxwell stress tensor , defined as. The above results are for the microscopic Maxwell equations, applicable to electromagnetic forces in a vacuum or on a very small scale in media.

It is more difficult to define momentum density in media because the division into electromagnetic and mechanical is arbitrary. The definition of electromagnetic momentum density is modified to.

The electromagnetic stress tensor depends on the properties of the media. In quantum mechanics , momentum is defined as a self-adjoint operator on the wave function.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle defines limits on how accurately the momentum and position of a single observable system can be known at once.

In quantum mechanics, position and momentum are conjugate variables. This is a commonly encountered form of the momentum operator, though the momentum operator in other bases can take other forms.

For example, in momentum space the momentum operator is represented as. Electromagnetic radiation including visible light , ultraviolet light, and radio waves is carried by photons.

Even though photons the particle aspect of light have no mass, they still carry momentum. This leads to applications such as the solar sail.

The calculation of the momentum of light within dielectric media is somewhat controversial see Abraham—Minkowski controversy. In fields such as fluid dynamics and solid mechanics , it is not feasible to follow the motion of individual atoms or molecules.

Instead, the materials must be approximated by a continuum in which there is a particle or fluid parcel at each point that is assigned the average of the properties of atoms in a small region nearby.

Consider a column of water in hydrostatic equilibrium. All the forces on the water are in balance and the water is motionless. On any given drop of water, two forces are balanced.

The first is gravity, which acts directly on each atom and molecule inside. The second force is the sum of all the forces exerted on its surface by the surrounding water.

The force from below is greater than the force from above by just the amount needed to balance gravity.

The normal force per unit area is the pressure p. The average force per unit volume inside the droplet is the gradient of the pressure, so the force balance equation is [44].

If the forces are not balanced, the droplet accelerates. Instead, the material derivative is needed: [45]. Applied to any physical quantity, the material derivative includes the rate of change at a point and the changes due to advection as fluid is carried past the point.

This is equal to the net force on the droplet. Forces that can change the momentum of a droplet include the gradient of the pressure and gravity, as above.

In addition, surface forces can deform the droplet. Such a shear stress occurs if the fluid has a velocity gradient because the fluid is moving faster on one side than another.

If the speed in the x direction varies with z , the tangential force in direction x per unit area normal to the z direction is.

This is also a flux , or flow per unit area, of x-momentum through the surface. Including the effect of viscosity, the momentum balance equations for the incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid are.

These are known as the Navier—Stokes equations. The momentum balance equations can be extended to more general materials, including solids.

The local conservation of momentum is expressed by the Cauchy momentum equation :. The Cauchy momentum equation is broadly applicable to deformations of solids and liquids.

The relationship between the stresses and the strain rate depends on the properties of the material see Types of viscosity.

A disturbance in a medium gives rise to oscillations, or waves , that propagate away from their source. In a fluid, small changes in pressure p can often be described by the acoustic wave equation :.

In a solid, similar equations can be obtained for propagation of pressure P-waves and shear S-waves.

In the linear approximation that leads to the above acoustic equation, the time average of this flux is zero.

However, nonlinear effects can give rise to a nonzero average. In about AD, working in Alexandria, Byzantine philosopher John Philoponus developed a concept of momentum in his commentary to Aristotle 's Physics.

Aristotle claimed that everything that is moving must be kept moving by something. For example, a thrown ball must be kept moving by motions of the air.

Most writers continued to accept Aristotle's theory until the time of Galileo, but a few were skeptical. Philoponus pointed out the absurdity in Aristotle's claim that motion of an object is promoted by the same air that is resisting its passage.

He proposed instead that an impetus was imparted to the object in the act of throwing it. He agreed that an impetus is imparted to a projectile by the thrower; but unlike Philoponus, who believed that it was a temporary virtue that would decline even in a vacuum, he viewed it as a persistent, requiring external forces such as air resistance to dissipate it.

Buridan, who in about was made rector of the University of Paris, referred to impetus being proportional to the weight times the speed.

Moreover, Buridan's theory was different from his predecessor's in that he did not consider impetus to be self-dissipating, asserting that a body would be arrested by the forces of air resistance and gravity which might be opposing its impetus.

This should not be read as a statement of the modern law of momentum, since he had no concept of mass as distinct from weight and size, and more important, he believed that it is speed rather than velocity that is conserved.

So for Descartes if a moving object were to bounce off a surface, changing its direction but not its speed, there would be no change in its quantity of motion.

Leibniz , in his " Discourse on Metaphysics ", gave an argument against Descartes' construction of the conservation of the "quantity of motion" using an example of dropping blocks of different sizes different distances.

He points out that force is conserved but quantity of motion, construed as the product of size and speed of an object, is not conserved.

Christiaan Huygens concluded quite early that Descartes's laws for the elastic collision of two bodies must be wrong, and he formulated the correct laws.

The war ended in , and Huygens announced his results to the Royal Society in The first correct statement of the law of conservation of momentum was by English mathematician John Wallis in his work, Mechanica sive De Motu, Tractatus Geometricus : "the initial state of the body, either of rest or of motion, will persist" and "If the force is greater than the resistance, motion will result".

His Definition II defines quantitas motus , "quantity of motion", as "arising from the velocity and quantity of matter conjointly", which identifies it as momentum.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Orders of magnitude momentum. This article is about linear momentum. It is not to be confused with angular momentum.

This article is about momentum in physics. For other uses, see Momentum disambiguation. Conserved physical quantity related to the motion of a body.

Momentum of a pool cue ball is transferred to the racked balls after collision. Second law of motion. History Timeline Textbooks.

Newton's laws of motion. Analytical mechanics Lagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton—Jacobi equation Appell's equation of motion Koopman—von Neumann mechanics.

Core topics. Circular motion Rotating reference frame Centripetal force Centrifugal force reactive Coriolis force Pendulum Tangential speed Rotational speed.

Main article: Conservation of momentum. Main article: Elastic collision. Main article: Inelastic collision. See also: Variable-mass system.

See also: Mass in special relativity and Tests of relativistic energy and momentum. Main article: Four-momentum.

See also: Analytical mechanics. Further information: Momentum operator. Main article: Cauchy momentum equation. This section needs attention from an expert in History of Science.

The specific problem is: Dispute over originator of conservation of momentum. See the talk page for details.

WikiProject History of Science may be able to help recruit an expert. November See also: Theory of impetus.

Physics portal. Crystal momentum Galilean cannon Momentum transfer Newton's cradle Planck momentum Position and momentum space.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Engineering Mechanics, An Introduction to Dynamics 3rd ed. PWS Publishing Company.

Invitation to Contemporary Physics illustrated ed. World Scientific. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 2 August Jewett, Jr Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 16 July Biomechanics of sport and exercise 2nd ed.

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Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. Waves in the ocean 2. Amsterdam [u. Fluid Mech. The film was directed by Stephen Campanelli in his directorial debut , and was written by Adam Marcus and Debra Sullivan.

Washington", and Morgan Freeman as the U. Director Campanelli wanted to cast Purefoy based on his performance in the television series " The Following ".

Freeman offered his services to Campanelli for his directorial debut based on their prior working relationship, when he was a cameraman for Clint Eastwood.

The film had its world premiere at the Fantasia International Film Festival , on July 22, , in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the hometown of the director.

Momentum received generally negative reviews. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Azari Media Thaba Media. This article needs an improved plot summary.

October British Board of Film Classification. July 23, Retrieved July 23, The Numbers. Boisvert July Fantasia Independent Online South Africa.

Marianopolis Matters.

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