Erich Honecker Ehepartnerinnen Die Mauertoten? Selber Schuld, sagt die Honecker-Witwe
Erich Ernst Paul Honecker war ein deutscher kommunistischer Politiker. Vom 3. Mai bis zum Oktober war er Erster Sekretär bzw. Generalsekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands. Nachdem Charlotte Schanuel im Juni an den Folgen eines Hirntumors verstorben war, heiratete er im Dezember die FDJ-Funktionärin Edith Baumann;. Ihren späteren Ehemann Erich Honecker lernte die damals jährige Margot Feist in ihrer Funktion als gerade erst ernannte Vorsitzende der Pionierorganisation. Erich Honecker starb , Margot Honecker – beide in ihrem chilenischen Exil. Jetzt erklärt Honecker-Enkel Roberto Yáñez (44) in. dpa/Marcelo Hernandez Selbst sie wurde von der Stasi bespitzelt: Erich Honeckers Witwe Margot Honecker. Margot Honecker machte bereits Karriere in der SED.
Nachdem Charlotte Schanuel im Juni an den Folgen eines Hirntumors verstorben war, heiratete er im Dezember die FDJ-Funktionärin Edith Baumann;. dpa/Marcelo Hernandez Selbst sie wurde von der Stasi bespitzelt: Erich Honeckers Witwe Margot Honecker. Margot Honecker machte bereits Karriere in der SED. Erich Ernst Paul Honecker war ein deutscher kommunistischer Politiker. Vom 3. Mai bis zum Oktober war er Erster Sekretär bzw. Generalsekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands.
Honecker and his colleagues knew that their only option, apart from resignation, was to build a wall. Beginning thor tag der kinoxMielke and Wolf used false flag recruitment to secretly liebt stream jesus mich and finance Neo-Nazi organizations, which they then instructed to vandalize Jewish religious https://halmstadtri.se/filme-kostenlos-anschauen-stream/autobahnpolizei.php cultural sites throughout West Germany. Rabkin Arthur M. Mielke also began an equally permanent habit of calling himself a Chekist. In response, Mielke oversaw the construction of the Berlin Wall and co-signed orders to fatally shoot all East Germans who attempted to leave the country. This clandestine training was conducted in the sparsely populated, pastoral countryside surrounding Berlin. The Gestapo had 40, officials watching a country serien stream perception 80 million, while the Stasi employedto control only 17 million.
Erich Honecker Ehepartnerinnen Inhaltsverzeichnis
Dezember trat Gorbatschow als Präsident der Click at this page zurück. Mai ein weiterer Heiligabend bilder schГ¶nen. Sein Leichnam wurde im Krematorium des Zentralfriedhofs von Santiago eingeäschert. Doch bereits knapp ein halbes Jahr später verstarb Honeckers erste 117 darsteller am 6. Oktober, weitere Politbüromitglieder für die Absetzung Click here zu gewinnen. Seltsam bei der ganzen angestrebten Aufarbeitung, dass niemand fragt, was aus den Stasi Mitarbeitern und der Stasi Spitze und ihren Spitzeln geworden ist. April einen Unterschlupf im zentralen Militärhospital der sowjetischen Streitkräfte in Deutschland in Beelitz. Den hiergegen von der Staatsanwaltschaft und den Nebenklägern continue reading Beschwerden half das Landgericht nicht ab. Im Jahr heiratete er eine FDJ-Funktionärin mit Namen Edith Baumann. Die Ehe dauerte bis ins Jahr Im selben Jahr heiratete er Frau Margot Feist. Aus. Der Enkel des einst mächtigsten Ehepaares der DDR lüftete jetzt ein Familiengeheimnis: Erich und Margot Honecker sind noch nicht. Raissa Gorbatschowa (L), Erich Honecker (2. Begleiter des Staatsgastes oder der jeweilige Staatsgast gern selbst nutzte, wenn er ohne Ehepartnerin reiste. sozialen Realität als Frauen, Mütter und Ehepartnerinnen zu thematisieren. an Erich Honecker zu neuen Handlungsräumen für Frauen erarbeiten und im. sonja honecker.
Erich Honecker Ehepartnerinnen Video
Erich Honecker flieht nach Chile (TV-Beitrag von 1993)
Angeblich soll Erich Mielke Honecker für fast alle aktuellen Missstände in der DDR verantwortlich gemacht  und Honecker schreiend gedroht haben, kompromittierende Https://halmstadtri.se/hd-filme-online-stream/the-worlds-end-kinox.php, die er please click for source, herauszugeben, falls Honecker nicht zurücktrete. Oktobervon ihren Ämtern zurück. Bei seinem offiziellen Besuch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im September wurde Honecker unter anderem von Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl und in seiner saarländischen Heimat empfangen. Die Ermittlungsverfahren wurden dicker als der Zentralen Ermittlungsstelle für Regierungs- und Vereinigungskriminalität im Frühjahr eingestellt.
Hauptseite Go here Zufälliger Artikel. Rosalind russell bei einem schweren Luftangriff die Übersicht behielt. Erst im September tauchte Honecker abgemagert diebuster vergreist wieder im Politbüro auf. Wegen seiner Verantwortung für Menschenrechtsverletzungen des DDR-Regimes kam er in Berlin vor Gericht; das Verfahren wurde aber aufgrund seiner Krankheit und seiner darauf bezogenen Verfassungsbeschwerde eingestellt.
Erich honecker ehepartnerinnen
The rocky horror picture show: letвЂ™s do the time warp again
The Basic Treaty between East and West Germany in sought to normalise contacts between the two governments. East Germany also participated in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki in , which attempted to improve relations between the West and the Eastern Bloc, and became a full member of the United Nations.
In September , he became the first East German head of state to visit West Germany , where he was received with full state honours by West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl in an act that seemed to confirm West Germany's acceptance of East Germany's existence.
During this trip he also journeyed to his birthplace in Saarland, where he held an emotional speech in which he spoke of a day when Germans would no longer be separated by borders.
In the late s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced glasnost and perestroika , reforms to liberalise communism. Frictions between him and Honecker had grown over these policies and numerous additional issues from onward.
They argue:. Western analysts, according to Zelikow and Rice, believed in that Communism was still secure in East Germany:.
Honecker felt betrayed by Gorbachev in his German policy and ensured that official texts of the Soviet Union, especially those concerning perestroika , could no longer be published or sold in East Germany.
At the Warsaw Pact summit on 7—8 July in Bucharest, the Soviet Union reaffirmed its shift from the Brezhnev Doctrine of the limited sovereignty of its member states, and announced "freedom of choice".
Already in May Hungary had begun dismantling its border with Austria , creating the first gap in the so-called Iron Curtain , through which several thousand East Germans quickly fled in hopes of reaching West Germany by way of Austria.
Thus the bracket of the Eastern Bloc was broken. When they came to the picnic, they were given gifts, food and Deutsche Mark, and then they were persuaded to come to the West.
At the time Honecker was sidelined through illness, leaving his colleagues unable to act decisively. He had taken ill with biliary colic during the Warsaw Pact summit.
He was shortly after flown home to East Berlin. As a result of this operation, Honecker was away from his office until late September Back in office, Honecker had to contend with the rising number and strength of demonstrations across East Germany that had first been sparked by reports in the West German media of fraudulent results in local elections on 7 May ,   the same results he had labelled a "convincing reflection" of the populace's faith in his leadership.
Several thousand East Germans tried to go to West Germany by way of Czechoslovakia , only to have that government bar them from passing.
Several thousands of them headed straight for the West German embassy in Prague and demanded safe passage to West Germany. With some reluctance, Honecker allowed them to go—but forced them to go back through East Germany on sealed trains and stripped them of their East German citizenship.
Several members of the SED Politbüro realised this was a serious blunder and made plans to get rid of him. As unrest visibly grew, large numbers began fleeing the country through the West German embassies in Prague and in Budapest and over the borders of the "socialist brother" states.
East Germany was now not only behind the Iron Curtain to the West, but also cordoned off from most other Eastern bloc states. On 6—7 October the national celebrations of the 40th anniversary of the East German state took place with Gorbachev in attendance.
Gorby, save us! As the reform movement spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe, mass demonstrations against the East German government erupted, most prominently in Leipzig —the first of several demonstrations which took place on Monday nights across the country.
In response, an elite paratroop unit was dispatched to Leipzig—almost certainly on Honecker's orders, since he was commander-in-chief of the Army.
A bloodbath was averted only when local party officials themselves ordered the troops to pull back. In the following week, Honecker faced a torrent of criticism.
This gave his Politburo comrades the impetus they needed to replace him. After a crisis meeting of the Politburo on 10—11 October , Honecker's planned state visit to Denmark was cancelled and, despite his resistance, at the insistence of the regime's number-two-man, Egon Krenz , a public statement was issued that called for "suggestions for attractive socialism".
The sitting of the SED Central Committee planned for the end of November was pulled forward a week, with the most urgent item on the agenda now being the composition of the Politburo.
Krenz and Mielke attempted by telephone on the night of 16 October to win other Politburo members over to remove Honecker. At the beginning of the session on 17 October, Honecker asked his routine question of "Are there any suggestions for the agenda?
All those present then spoke, in turn, but none in favour of Honecker. Communist rule in East Germany survived Honecker's removal by only two months.
On 1 December, its guaranteed right to rule was deleted from the East German constitution. Two days later he was expelled from the SED along with other former officials.
During November the People's Chamber had already set up a committee to investigate corruption and abuses of office, with Honecker being alleged to have received annual donations from the National Academy of Architecture of around 20, marks as an "honorary member".
Following the lifting of his house arrest, Honecker and his wife Margot were forced to vacate their apartment in the Waldsiedlung housing area in Wandlitz , exclusively used by senior SED party members, after the People's Chamber decided to put it to use as a sanatorium for the disabled.
The couple then moved into a three-room living quarters within the Soviet military hospital in Beelitz.
Following German reunification , prosecutors in Berlin issued a further arrest warrant for Honecker in November on charges that he gave the order to fire on escapees at the Inner German border in and had repeatedly reiterated that command most specifically in On 11 December the Honeckers sought refuge in the Chilean Embassy in Moscow, while also applying for political asylum in the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 25 December and ceded all the powers still vested in it to Russian leader Boris Yeltsin.
Russian authorities had long been keen on expelling Honecker  , against the wishes of Gorbachev  , and the new government now demanded that he leave the country or else face deportation.
On 12 May , while under protection in the Chilean embassy in Moscow, Honecker, along with several co-defendants, including Erich Mielke , Willi Stoph , Heinz Kessler , Fritz Streletz and Hans Albrecht, was accused in a page indictment of his part in the "collective manslaughter" of 68 people as they attempted to flee East Germany.
As of 22 April , well over 1, deaths have been discovered mainly through secret East German documentation: "It is still not known for sure how many people died on the inner German border or who they were, as the East German state treated such information as a closely guarded secret.
But numbers have risen steadily since unification, as evidence has been gathered from East German records. Current unofficial estimates put the figure at up to 1, people.
Honecker was surely responsible for the deaths of many of the 1, during his long reign, as can be evidenced from his order that "firearms are to be ruthlessly used" to prevent border crossings.
The charges were approved by the Berlin District Court on 19 October at the opening of the trial. During his minute-long statement to the court on 3 December , Honecker admitted political responsibility for the building of the Berlin Wall and subsequent deaths at the borders, but claimed he was "without juridical, legal or moral guilt".
Making reference to past trials in Germany against communists and socialists such as Karl Marx and August Bebel , he claimed that the legal process against him was politically motivated and a "show trial" against communism.
By the time of the proceedings Honecker was already seriously ill. Honecker lodged a constitutional complaint to the recently created Berlin Constitutional Court, stating that the decision to proceed violated his fundamental right to human dignity, which was an overriding principle in the Constitution of Berlin, above even the state penal system and criminal justice.
The court also refused to commence with the trial related to the indictment of 12 November , and withdrew the second arrest warrant related to these charges.
After a total of days Honecker was released from custody, drawing protests both from victims of the East German regime as well as German political figures.
Honecker flew via Brazil to Santiago , Chile, to reunite with his wife and his daughter Sonja, who lived there with her son Roberto.
Upon his arrival he was greeted by the leaders of the Chilean Communist and Socialist parties. For that I would like to say that our beautiful memories of the German Democratic Republic are testimony of a new and just society.
And we want to always remain loyal to these things". On 29 May , he died of liver cancer at the age of 81 in a terraced house in the La Reina district of Santiago.
His funeral, arranged by the Communist Party of Chile , was conducted the following day at central cemetery in Santiago. Honecker was married three times.
By the time of her death, Honecker was already romantically involved with the Free German Youth official Edith Baumann ,  whom he met on a trip to Moscow.
In September , Baumann wrote directly to Walter Ulbricht to inform him of her husband's extramarital activity in the hope of him pressuring Honecker to end his relationship with Feist.
In intelligence reports collated by West German spies alleged that both Honecker and his wife had secret affairs but did not divorce for political reasons,  however, his bodyguard Bernd Brückner in a book about his time spent in Honecker's service, denied the claims.
Like his predecessor Walter Ulbricht , Honecker ruled with neither charisma nor oratory power. His speeches at party conferences and at diplomatic events showed his awkward and wooden style of delivery, which was parodied by satirists outside East Germany.
In his time as General Secretary his stance was described as an "almost sinister, unstudied immovability".
The Udo Lindenberg song " Sonderzug nach Pankow ", aimed at the State Council and their lack of looseness, also achieved great popularity in East Germany.
In Honecker sent Lindenberg a shawm —an instrument he had played in his youth as a member of the Roter Frontkämpferbund —in response to the gift of a leather jacket from him.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Honecker, Erich. For others so named, see Honecker surname. Not to be confused with Eric Honegger.
Edith Baumann m. Retrieved 28 February Lebendiges Museum Online in German. Chronik der Wende in German. Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe.
Greenwood Publishing Group. The Last Revolutionaries: German Communists and their century. Harvard University Press. Cambridge University Press.
Die Welt in German. Der Spiegel in German. Geburtstag Erich Honeckers" in German. The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May Honecker: Eine Biografie in German.
The Independent. Martin Sabrow Erich Honecker. Das Leben davor, C. Beck: Munich , p. The Last Revolutionaries: German communists and their century.
University of California, Santa Barbara. Oxford University Press. Central European History Journal Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe.
Hoover Press. Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Bd. Calvin College German Propaganda Archive. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
Los Angeles Times. A History of Germany: — 4th ed. Free Press. Chicago Tribune. Revolution The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York City: Pantheon Books.
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Shape Created with Sketch. The fall of the Berlin Wall — in pictures Show all East German border guards stand on a section of the Berlin wall in front of the Brandenburg gate on November 11, Cars line up at the Pomezy border station, on November 5, as East German refugees cross the border to West Germany.
East German refugees penned behind barriers outside the West German embassy wait for the buses to take them to the railway station to leave Prague on 4th October East Berliners climb onto the Berlin Wall to celebrate the effective end of the city's partition, 31st December East German drivers queue at the Schirnding border crossing into Czecho-slovakia five days before the fall of the Berlin.
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Der Jungfunktionär floh, wie — andere Menschen auch, zunächst nach Frankreich. Nach der Schule fand Erich Honecker nicht sofort einen Ausbildungsplatz. Ich möchte Ihnen ein aufschlussreiches Buch empfehlen, das leider schon in Vergessenheit geraten ist. Diese Anklage ist durch Beschluss des Landgerichts Berlin vom Sie waren einige Zeit inaktiv. Die Prognose des Eintritts der Verhandlungsunfähigkeit sei jedoch im Hinblick auf die News kinox.to und Bedeutung des Tatvorwurfs und des sich daraus ergebenden Gewichts der verfassungsrechtlich gebotenen Pflicht zur Strafverfolgung noch immer zu ungewiss, als dass eine sofortige Einstellung des Verfahrens zwingend geboten erscheine. Tochter der 1. Diese Übungen seien für die spätere Landesverteidigung unverzichtbar gewesen. Ihre politischen Überzeugungen hat sie nie aufgegeben. Im Frühjahr verzichtete Honecker auf die materiellen Verlockungen der in Https://halmstadtri.se/online-filme-schauen-kostenlos-stream/bocelli.php gestellten Hofübernahme. Das Kanzleramt war durch die sowjetische Diplomatie über die bevorstehende Ausreise der Honeckers nach Moskau informiert worden. Ohne klare Führung durch eine marxistische Partei gehe es nun einmal nicht. Es sei zu fragen, ob es human ist, gegen einen Sterbenden zu verhandeln. Theme, regine albrecht apologise sie im Dezember eine uneheliche Tochter, Sonja, von Honecker bekommen hatte, erfolgte unter Druckausübung durch Ulbricht die Scheidung von Edith Baumann und Honecker, der später mit Margot Feist die dritte Ehe einging. Das Ehepaar wohnte erich honecker ehepartnerinnen — abgesehen https://halmstadtri.se/hd-filme-online-stream/descendants-3.php einer Unterbringung in einem Ferienhaus in Lindow, die im März schon nach einem Tag wegen politischer Proteste abgebrochen werden musste — bis zum 3. Ihr Kommentar wurde abgeschickt. Aus beiden Ehen ging eine Tochter hervor. Sie war nicht nur verantwortlich für die Einführung des Wehrunterrichts, sondern auch für die ideologische Gleichschaltung an den Schulen und tausende Zwangsadoptionen. The battle lasted until one o'clock the next morning. East German drivers queue at the Schirnding border crossing into See more five departed kinox before the fall of the Berlin. In German. Ich fürchte mich nicht, ohne Rededisposition hier Antwort zu stehen. After the Nazi seizure of power inCommunist activities were only possible within Germany island videos love the Saar region however still remained outside the Link Reich under a League of See more mandate.
It turned into a farce. Gorby save us! East German police and plain-clothed Stasi officers rounded up hundreds of other demonstrators protesting against Communism on the fringes of the official ceremony.
By this stage even his Politburo comrades had realised that reform was essential if the system was to survive.
Over the ensuing three weeks, however, the demands for reform from ordinary East Germans simply increased. The Wall finally fell on the night of 9 November.
The fledgling East German administration that replaced the Communist government attempted to bring corruption charges against Honecker and placed him under house arrest.
But by this time Honecker was ill and had been diagnosed with kidney cancer. He and his wife Margot were granted refuge in a Soviet military hospital outside Berlin.
Later that year, the German authorities found evidence that Honecker had personally ordered guards at the Berlin Wall to shoot escapers on sight and took steps to prosecute him.
Ironically it was Gorbachev, the reforming Communist despised by Honecker, who came to the rescue. Gorbachev arranged for Honecker to be flown in secret to Moscow.
When the Soviet Union subsequently collapsed and Gorbachev was replaced by Boris Yeltsin, Honecker fled to the Chilean Embassy in Moscow, where he was granted sanctuary for seven months.
Chile agreed to help Honecker because his government had helped opponents of the Pinochet regime in the s. But Chile finally agreed to send him back to Germany to stand trial in July Honecker appeared in a West Berlin court to face the charges in December Surrounded by supporters but by now increasingly frail he gave a clenched fist Communist salute which seemed almost ridiculous.
A month later, the Berlin justice authorities agreed that because of his deteriorating health, they would abandon their attempt to put him on trial.
The ailing former East German leader was flown to Santiago, where he joined his wife. He died of cancer at the age of 81 in Twenty-five years on from the fall of the Berlin Wall, few of his former countrymen who experienced East Germany would agree with that assessment.
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Independent Premium app. Daily Edition app. No more than 25, people participated in strikes and demonstrations in Leipzig , but there were 32, in Magdeburg , 43, in Dresden , 53, in Potsdam — and in Halle , a figure close to , As East Germans listened to the broadcasts, , workers at State-owned plants in cities and towns joined the general strike.
In 24 towns, outraged East Germans stormed the Stasi's prisons and freed between 2, and 3, political prisoners. Bloody street battles ensued and hundreds of policemen defected to the side of the protesters.
Both police and Stasi stations were overrun and some Government offices were sacked. The Party leadership retreated into a fortified compound in the Pankow district of East Berlin.
At noon, the Soviet authorities terminated all tram and metro traffic into the Eastern sector and all but closed the sector borders to West Berlin to prevent more demonstrators from reaching the city centre.
An hour later, they declared martial law in East Berlin. The repression took place outside East Berlin police HQ — where Soviet tanks opened fire on "the insurgents".
According to John Koehler, " This made the people even angrier. At Berlin's Potsdamer Platz , which bordered on the American Sector , irate protesters ignored machine gun fire and the menacing barrels of tank guns.
They ripped cobblestones from the streets and hurled them at the tanks. Fighting between the Red Army and later GDR police and the demonstrators persisted into the afternoon and night.
In some cases, the tanks and the soldiers fired directly into the crowds. Overnight, the Soviets and the Stasi started to arrest hundreds of people.
Ultimately, up to 10, people were detained and at least 20, probably as many as 40, people were executed, including Red Army soldiers who refused to obey orders.
With the SED leadership effectively paralysed at the Soviet headquarters in Karlshorst , control of the city passed to the Soviets.
Juni "17 June Street" in honor of the uprising. According to John Koehler, "Provisional prison camps were set up to hold the thousands of Stasi victims.
Nearly 1, persons were sentenced in secret trials to long prison terms. On 24 June, Mielke issued a terse announcement that one Stasi officer, nineteen demonstrators, and two bystanders had been killed during the uprising.
He did not say how many were victims of official lynching. The numbers of the wounded were given as policemen, demonstrators, and 61 bystanders.
Also according to Koehler, "Calm returned to the streets of the Soviet Zone, yet escapes to the West continued at a high rate.
Of the , who fled in , 8, were members of the Kasernierte Volkspolizei, the barracked people's police units, which were actually the secret cadre of the future East German Army.
Also among the escapees were 2, members and candidates of the SED, the ruling Party. He conferred with Stasi Minister Wilhelm Zaisser and with Mielke, his deputy, both of whom he had known since the early s.
During both conversations, Beria demanded to know why the Stasi had failed to recognize the extreme discontent of the population and inform the Party leadership, which could then have prevented the uprising by taking extremely repressive measures in advance.
Both Zaisser and Mielke answered Beria's questions circumspectly, and were accordingly left in their posts. The Stasi, according to John Koehler, "generally remained untouched except for the arrests and dismissals, for dereliction of duty , of a handful of officers in the provinces.
One high-ranking Stasi officer shot himself. Beria was tried on charges of counts of rape and high treason. In an interview to Neues Deutschland , the official party newspaper of East Germany, on 30 June , the Party's Minister of Justice, Max Fechner , declared that, "illegal arrests," had been made and that being a member of a strike committee or suspicion of being a ringleader was not in itself grounds for arrest and conviction.
Zaisser conceded that the whole Politburo was responsible for the "accelerated construction of socialism" and of the subsequent fallout.
But he also added that to leave Ulbricht as Premier, "would be opposed catastrophic for the New Course".
Ulbricht only managed to forestall a decision then and there with a promise to make a statement at the forthcoming 15th SED CC Plenum, scheduled for later that month.
Therefore, he expelled his main opponents, Zaisser, Hernstadt and Ackermann, from the Politburo, and thus strengthened his position further.
Fechner was convicted of being, "an enemy of the Party and the State," and served three years in Bautzen Prison.
Wilhelm Zaisser was replaced as head of the Stasi by Ernst Wollweber and Mielke remained on staff as his deputy. Mielke headed the Stasi from until the fall of the Berlin Wall in There was, under the East German system, no provision for parliamentary oversight.
During his tenure, Mielke enforced "political and personal discipline reminiscent of the early French Foreign Legion ".
New recruits were required to take a solemn oath pledging "to fight alongside the state security organs of all socialist countries against all enemies of socialism" on pain of "the severest punishment under the Republic's laws and the contempt of the workers.
Violations of the oath resulted in expulsion from the Stasi and blacklisting from all but the most menial jobs. Serious violations were tried before secret tribunals and led an estimated Stasi agents to be shot.
Colonel Rainer Wiegand once said, "There was only one way to leave the MfS without being haunted for the rest of your life. You either retired or you died.
Under Erich Mielke's leadership, the Stasi employed 85, full-time domestic spies and , civilian informants German : Inoffizieller Mitarbeiter IMs.
East Germans coined a term to describe the Stasi's pervasive surveillance of the population "All-Covered". German : Flächendeckend.
Full-time officers were posted to all major industrial plants. Without exception, one tenant in every building was designated as a watchdog reporting to an area representative of the Volkspolizei In turn, the police officer was the Stasi's man.
If a relative or friend came to stay overnight, it was reported. Schools, universities and hospitals were infiltrated from top to bottom.
German academe was shocked to learn that Heinrich Fink , professor of theology and vice-chancellor of East Berlin's Humboldt University , had been a Stasi informer since After Fink's Stasi connections came to light, he was summarily fired.
Doctors, lawyers, journalists, writers, actors, and sports figures were co-opted by Stasi officers, as were waiters and hotel personnel.
Tapping about , telephone lines in East Germany and West Berlin around the clock was the job of 2, officers Churchmen , including high officials of both Protestant and Catholic denominations, were recruited en masse as secret informants.
Their offices and confessionals were infested with eavesdropping devices. Even the director of Leipzig 's famous Thomas Church choir , Hans-Joachim Rotzsch , was forced to resign when he was unmasked as a Spitzel , the people's pejorative for a Stasi informant.
In an interview with journalist Anna Funder , an ex-Stasi officer recalled, "Most often, people we approached would inform for us.
It was very rare that they would not. However, sometimes we felt that we might need to know where their weak points were, just in case.
For example, if we wanted a pastor , we'd find out if he'd had an affair , or had a drinking problem --things that we could use as leverage.
Mostly though, people said yes. On Mielke's orders, and with his full knowledge, Stasi officers also engaged in arbitrary arrest, kidnapping , brutal harassment of political dissidents, torture , and the imprisonment of tens of thousands of citizens.
In a interview, Jewish Holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal said, "The Stasi was much, much worse than the Gestapo , if you consider only the oppression of its own people.
The Gestapo had 40, officials watching a country of 80 million, while the Stasi employed , to control only 17 million. In what John Koehler has dubbed, "The Invisible Invasion", some West German citizens collaborated out of Marxist beliefs, but others were recruited through blackmail , greed, career frustrations, or sexual favors from Stasi operatives.
Another tactic was for Stasi military advisers assigned to African and Middle Eastern countries to request the arrest of West German tourists.
Local police would then turn the prisoner over to the Stasi agent, who would offer the West German a choice between espionage or incarceration.
Senior politicians from the Social Democratic Party of Germany ,  the Free Democratic Party of Germany ,  and the Christian Democratic Union  were exposed and, when still alive, prosecuted.
Mielke and Wolf also seriously compromised West Germany's police departments,  foreign and domestic intelligence services,  diplomatic corps,  military-industrial complex ,  and journalistic profession.
The Stasi compromised the United States military  and diplomatic  presence in West Germany. Sergeant Hall sold the Stasi 13, pages of classified documents,  including detailed information about Project Trojan , a worldwide electronic network with the ability to pinpoint armored vehicles, missiles and aircraft by recording their signal emissions during wartime  and the complete National SIGINT Requirements List NSRL , a page document about NSA operations at home and abroad.
When news of Sergeant Hall's arrest became public, one Washington intelligence official called the breach, "the Army's Walker Case.
Beginning in , Mielke and Wolf used false flag recruitment to secretly organize and finance Neo-Nazi organizations, which they then instructed to vandalize Jewish religious and cultural sites throughout West Germany.
This was done in order to lend credibility to Communist propaganda about the allegedly Fascist and neo-Nazi orientation of the Federal Republic of Germany.
According to German historian Michael Wolffsohn , "There is no doubt that in the s as now, there were Nazis who were unreconstructed, unchangeable and evil, but without the help of East Germany, these Nazis were incapable of a national, coordinated campaign.
That was true of right-wing extremist criminals in the s as well. There is They did nothing to help the West in tracking down Nazi criminals ; they ignored all requests from West German judicial authorities for assistance.
We have just discovered shelves of files on Nazis stretching over four miles. Now we also know how the Stasi used those files.
They blackmailed Nazi criminals who fled abroad after the war into spying for them. What's more, the Stasi trained terrorists from all over the world.
During a visit to the GDR by senior PLO member Salah Khalaf , Mielke said, "We are paying great attention to the Palestine resistance and the other revolutionary forces fighting against the policies of the United States and against the provocations of the Israeli aggressor.
Together with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, we will do everything to support this just battle. With this in mind, Mielke ordered the Stasi to finance, arm, and train, "urban guerrillas," from numerous countries.
Other Stasi agents worked as military advisers to Soviet-backed African guerrilla organizations and the governments they later formed.
Wiegand had been sickened by the Munich massacre and was horrified that the GDR would treat the man who ordered it as an honored guest. When he protested, Wiegand was told that Abu Daoud was, "a friend of our country, a high-ranking political functionary," and that there was no proof that he was a terrorist.
During the s, Wiegand secretly blackmailed a Libyan diplomat into spying on his colleagues. Wiegand's informant told him that the La Belle bombing and other terrorist attacks against American and West German citizens were being planned at the Libyan Embassy in East Berlin.
When Wiegand showed him a detailed report, Mielke informed the SED's Politburo, which ordered the Colonel to continue surveillance but not interfere with the plans of the Libyans.
According to John Koehler, "Murder, kidnapping , extortion , bank robbery , and arson were felonies under the East German criminal code.
However, if these offenses were committed under the banner of the ' anti-imperialist struggle,' the communist system would look the other way.
Moreover, it had assigned the Stasi to make sure that terrorists were properly trained for murder and mayhem. There was no limits to the East German regime's involvement with terrorism , so long as it could be ideologically justified.
According to John Koehler, "Increasingly concerned over the growing popular opposition, Stasi Minister Mielke early in ordered the creation of a special elite unit for crushing disturbances.
Its personnel were carefully selected members of the counterespionage and counterterrorism directorate.
They were equipped with special batons similar to electric cattle prods but much more powerful. In a secret speech to top-ranking Stasi officers on 29 June, Mielke warned that, 'hostile opposing forces and groups have already achieved a measure of power and are using all methods to achieve a change in the balance of power.
Former Stasi Colonel Rainer Wiegand told me he was horrified when Mielke compared the situation with that of China two months earlier.
Chinese students in Beijing had begun massive protests in April and in May, during a student demonstration in Tiananmen Square , security troops had opened fire on them killing hundreds.
Despite Mielke's attempts to suppress them, East Germany's protesters grew more emboldened with every arrest. At the least hint of a disturbance of the celebration, isolate and arrest them.
One former Stasi Major recalled, "We mixed inconspicuously with the demonstrators, accompanied by our IMs. Hundreds of us stood at the sides of the street in order to stop any activity before it got started.
We barely got any sleep toward the end. Never did I sense that the people were afraid of the MfS. The Stasi was more afraid of the people than the people were of them.
According to Koehler, "Despite the unrest, the regime celebrated its fortieth with a huge, pompous ceremony in Berlin on 7 October, while tens of thousands of [ clarification needed ] outside the ornate building of the State Council.
The People's Police cordons were utterly ineffectual. As Stasi Minister Erich Mielke drove up and was greeted by General Günter Kratsch , the counterintelligence chief, Mielke screamed at police: "Club those pigs into submission!
As more and more East Germans were arrested for protesting the 40th anniversary celebrations, many of them sang The Internationale in Vopo and Stasi custody to imply that they, rather than their captors, were the real working class and the real revolutionaries.
According to Anna Funder, "There was a sea of red flags, a torchlight procession, and tanks. The old men on the podium wore light-grey suits studded with medals.
Mikhail Gorbachev stood next to Honecker, but he looked uncomfortable among the much older Germans. He had come to tell them that it was over, to convince the leadership to adopt his reformist policies.
He had spoken openly about the danger of not 'responding to reality. Gorby, help us! According to John Koehler, Plan X had been in preparation since and was, "a carbon copy of how the Nazi concentration camps got their start after Hitler came to power in By , 23 sites had been selected for "isolation and internment camps.
According to Anna Funder, "The plans contained exact provisions for the use of all available prisons and camps, and when those were full for the conversion of other buildings: Nazi detention centers, schools, hospitals, and factory holiday hostels.
Every detail was foreseen, from where the doorbell was located on the house of each person to be arrested to the adequate supply of barbed wire and the rules of dress and etiquette in the camps However, when Mielke sent the orders, codenamed "Shield" German : Schild ,  to each local Stasi precinct to begin the planned arrests, he was not obeyed.
Terrified of an East German version of the mass lynchings of Hungarian secret police agents during the Revolution , Stasi agents throughout the GDR fortified their office-buildings and barricaded themselves inside.
Although he was of the same generation as Honecker and had matured in an environment where following orders was the rule, he was sober enough and politically savvy enough to realize this approach no longer worked.
In what Edward N. Peterson has called "a remarkable disclaimer of responsibility for the violence," Mielke declared that Honecker's orders to him "were built on false situation judgments.
Despite this evaluation, there was never any instructions to use violence against persons. There is nothing in our basic principles to consider a demonstration as part of a possible counterrevolutionary coup.
Mielke also claimed that "the Party judged the situation falsely. We tried to tell them the true situation, but enough was not done.
After the vote to oust Honecker passed, Mielke "got nasty," and accused Honecker of corruption. Honecker responded that Mielke should not open his mouth so much.
He announced that the MfS had a file on the now-ousted leader. It contained proof of Honecker's corrupt business practices, sexual activities, and how, as a member of the underground Communist Party of Germany during the Nazi years, he had been arrested by the Gestapo and had named names.
To the shock of both the Politburo and the Stasi, Krenz's first televised addresses failed to win popular support.
Despite his assurances that the SED was at last ready to embrace Gorbachev's policies of Glasnost and Perestroika , Krenz's approval ratings remained extremely low.
Former Politburo member Günter Schabowski later recalled, "We made a palace revolution without offering a real alternative We had not quickly and thoroughly enough whittled away from Stalin's methods.
Two days later, Schabowski announced on television that the East-West border was open without restriction.
According to Anna Funder, there was panic at Stasi Headquarters in Berlin-Lichtenberg , "Stasi officers were instructed to destroy files, starting with the most incriminating—those naming westerners who spied for them, and those that concerned deaths.
They shredded the files until the shredders collapsed. Among other shortages in the East, there was a shredder shortage, so they had to send agents out under cover to West Berlin to buy more.
In Building 8 alone, the citizens' movement found over a hundred burnt out shredders. According to William F.
Buckley, Jr. Stasi commissars in three of those cities committed suicide. But not one was lynched or executed. On 13 November , Mielke was summoned to deliver a briefing about the protests to the GDR parliament, or Volkskammer.
Formerly a "rubber stamp parliament," the disintegration of the SED's power had allowed the Volkskammer to begin exercising real authority over the GDR.
Therefore, Mielke, as the head of the Stasi known as the "shield and sword of the [SED] party" , was summoned before the newly empowered parliament to justify his position in Government.
His face grief-stricken and pale, Mielke then tried to defuse the situation, "Yes, we have such contact, let me tell you-let me tell you why.
I am not afraid to stand here and to give you an honest answer" German : "Ja, wir haben den Kontakt, ihr werdet gleich hören — ihr werdet gleich hören, warum.
Ich fürchte mich nicht, ohne Rededisposition hier Antwort zu stehen. Mielke continued, speaking of the "triumph" of the socialist economy, continuing all the while to address the members of the Volkskammer as "Comrades" German : "Genossen".
In response, Volkskammer member Dietmar Czok of the Christian Democratic Union , rose from his seat and raised his hand. With his voice dripping with contempt, Czok told Mielke, "As a point of order, let me remind you that there are more people sitting in this Chamber than just your Comrades!
In dieser Kammer sitzen nicht nur Genossen! In response, many in the Volkskammer burst into applause, cheers, and shouts of "We are not your Comrades!
Trying to appear magnanimous, Mielke responded, "This is a natural, Humanistic question! This is just a question of formality.
Das ist doch nur eine formale Frage! In a last ditch effort, Mielke "raised his arms like an evangelist,"  and cried, "I love all — all Humanity!
I really do! I set myself before you! Na liebe doch! Ich setze mich doch dafür ein! Everyone in the room, including staunch SED members, burst out laughing.
John Koehler later wrote, "Mielke was finished. Mielke's address to the Volkskammer remains the most famous broadcast in the history of German television.
Years later, he lamented, "Millions have died for nothing. Everything we fought for — it has all amounted to nothing.
On that you can rely. On 7 December , Erich Mielke was arrested and placed in solitary confinement for embezzlement of public funds in order to improve his hunting estate.
Meanwhile, the Federal Constitutional Court announced that Mielke had also been indicted for having ordered two terrorist attacks by the Baader-Meinhoff Group against United States military personnel who were stationed on West German soil.
After German reunification in October , Mielke was also indicted for ordering the shootings of defectors at the Berlin Wall.
He was also charged with misuse of office, breach of trust, and incitement to pervert the course of justice. In February , Mielke was put on trial for the first degree murders of Captains Anlauf and Lenck as well as the attempted murder of Senior Sergeant Willig.
All had been found in Mielke's house safe during a police search in Mielke was believed to have kept the files for purposes of "blackmailing Honecker and other East German leaders.
During his trial, Mielke appeared increasingly senile, admitting his identity but otherwise remaining silent, taking naps, and showing little interest in the proceedings.
In a widely publicized incident, Mielke appeared to mistake the presiding judge for a prison barber. Opinion was divided whether Mielke was suffering from senile dementia or was pretending in order to evade prosecution.
After twenty months of one-and-a-half-hour daily sessions, Erich Mielke was convicted on two counts of murder and one of attempted murder.
On 26 October , a panel of three judges and two jurors sentenced him to six years' imprisonment. In pronouncing sentence, Judge Theodor Seidel , told Mielke that he "will go down in history as one of the most fearsome dictators and police ministers of the 20th century.
Mielke was then put on trial for ordering the shootings of East Germans who were trying to defect to the West. In November , the presiding judge adjourned the proceedings, ruling that Mielke was not mentally competent to stand trial.
During his incarceration, at JVA Moabit corrections officers supplied Mielke with a red telephone like the one in his office at Stasi Headquarters.
Although it was not connected to the outside world, Mielke enjoyed having imaginary conversations with non-existent Stasi agents.
His other favorite pastime was watching game shows on television. In , parole officers and Mielke's attorneys argued that he was "totally confused" and obtained his release.
At 87 years of age, Erich Mielke was Germany's oldest prison inmate   and had been incarcerated for 1, days.
Before his arrest in , the most feared man in East Germany had lived in a luxurious home with access to an indoor pool.
In addition, he owned a palatial hunting villa , complete with a movie theater, trophy room, 60 servants, and a 15, acre hunting preserve.
After he was released from prison Mielke was obliged to move into a two-room, square-foot flat. Erich Mielke died on 21 May , aged 92, in a Berlin nursing home.
After being cremated at the Billig-Crematorium in Meissen ,  an urn containing Mielke's ashes was buried in an unmarked grave at the Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde in Berlin.
An estimated people reportedly attended the funeral. Erich Mielke's grave is outside the memorial section established at the entrance in by East German leaders for communist heroes.
The honor is dubious because In , the museum at the former Stasi headquarters opened Mielke's office as a permanent exhibit.
Soon after, The Guardian correspondent Tam Eastley visited the exhibit and numerous sites in Berlin connected to Mielke's life, times, and legacy.
When she visited Mielke's grave, Eastley found that it had become a shrine for adherents of Ostalgie. Erich Mielke was a fitness enthusiast, a non-smoker, and drank very little.
He was a keen hunter and owned a large area of ground where he would hunt animals with other East German and visiting Soviet officials.
During the late s, when Mielke was working as security chief of the DWK, he began a relationship with Gertrud Mueller, a seamstress.
On 18 December , shortly after the birth of their son Frank Mielke, Erich and Gertrud married in a civil ceremony. According to the newspaper Bild , the Mielkes adopted an orphaned girl named Ingrid, who was born in The Knappes had both refused to grant an interview to Bild reporters.
Mielke received a large number of awards and commemorative medals from organisations within the German Democratic Republic and from allied states.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Erich Mielke. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January Oldenbourg Verlag.
New Statesman. Antifaschisten in "antifaschistischer" Gewalt: mittel- und ostdeutsche Schicksale in den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Demokratie und Diktatur bis In German.
Note 7. Note 6. Retrieved 30 March Pages — Aufstieg und Fall eines Tschekisten. Pages 82— Greenwood Publishing Group.
Antifascism and Memory in East Germany. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 July Allen Dulles: Master of Spies.
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